Allah tells us (what means):
" There is nothing like unto Him (Allah), and He is The All-Hearer, The All-Seer." (Al-Shura 42:11)
"And there is none equal or comparable to Him (Allah)." (Al-Ikhlas 112:4)
As Muslims we have to know about Allah, since Allah is The One who created us to worship Him. We, of course, know about Allah through the Quran and Sunnah. We do not add or subtract to what the Quran and Sunnah say about Allah.
It is a very important part of our beliefs to not reject any of Allah's Names, Attributes, and Descriptions as described in the Qur'an and Sunnah and to try to interpret them to our understanding. For example when Allah talks or Muhammad (S) describe Allahs Face, Hands, Eyes, and Foot we do not liken Them to being symbolic or being metaphoric, but we take Them as is."And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever." (Al-Rahman 55:27)
"The Jews say, Allahs Hand is tied up. Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends (of His Bounty) as He wills." (Al-Maidah 5:64)
"So wait patiently (O Muhammad) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily you are under Our (Allahs) Eyes." (Al-Tur 52:48)
We do not say Allahs Face, Hands, and Eyes are like the ones of His Creations, and we do not deny them. All we do is acknowledge the fact that Allah indeed has these. How They are or are not, is not for us to go into.
Allah - The Most High Above His Throne
Allah tells us (what means):
"Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High"(Al Ala 87:1)
Judging from the above verse and from several others in the Quran we can see that Allah is The Most High. The One Who is above His Throne that is above the seven heavens and Allahs Chair, and Allah is not everywhere as many people claim.
Allah says what means in the Quran:
"Surely, your Lord is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days then He rose over the Throne." (Al-Araf 7:54)
"Are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will not split the earth beneath you? Or are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will send against you a stone-charged hurricane" (Al-Mulk 67:17-18)
"He is The Irresistible above His worshippers" (Al-Anam 6:18 and Al-Anam 6:61)
"Those, who fear their Lord who is above them" (Al-Nahl 16:50)
We can also see judging from the following Sahih Muslim hadith that Allah is above us:
Muaawiyah bin al-Hakam said, "I had a servant girl who used to tend my sheep in the area of Mount Uhud, near a place called al-Jawwaareeyah. One day I came to see them only to find that a wolf had made off with a sheep from her flock. Since I, like the rest of Aadams descendants, am prone to do regrettable acts, I gave her a terrible slap to the face. When I came to Allahs Messenger(S) with the story, he considered it a grave thing for to have done. I said, "Oh Messenger of Allah(S), could I not free her (to expiate for slapping her in the face)?" He(S) replied, "Bring her to me," so I brought her. He(S) then asked her, "Where is Allah?" and she replied, "Above the sky." Then he asked her, "Who am I?", and she replied, "You are Allahs Messenger." So he said, "Free her, for verily she is a true believer."
When we are in sajood, we recite (what means): "Glorified is Allah, Most High." If Allah was everywhere as some claim, why would we recite this when in sajood? One would probably never imagine referring to Allah as being The Most Low!
Views of the Four Major Madhhabs
Imam Abu Hanifah
Mutee al-Balakhee asked Imam Abu Hanifah regarding his opinion of a person who does not know whether his Lord is in the heavens or on earth. Abu Hanifah replied, He has disbelieved, because Allah has said,
"The Most Merciful is above the throne" (20:5)
and His Throne is above His Seven Heavens.
Abdullah bin Nafi reported that Imam Malik said: Allah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His Knowledge.
Imam Shafee said: The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding, namely, the testimony of faith: There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allah, that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and Allah is above His Arsh above the heavens..."
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal
Imam Bin Hanbal was asked: Is Allah above His Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and His Knowledge and Power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: Certainly, He is above His Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge.
Refutation of Arguments from people who say Allah is everywhere
As for the statements of Allah that have the following meanings:
"Verily, We created man and know what his soul whispers, for We are closer to him than his jugular vein" (50:16)
"Do you not see that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and in the earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of fewer or more, but He is with them, wherever they may be. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Surely, Allah knows all things full well" (58:7)
We can see Allah starts these statements specifying that He knows what the soul of man whispers and what is in the heavens and the earth, so we can see the reference to mans jugular vein and Allah being with the people specifies to Allahs knowledge.
Alhumdulillah there are many more proofs from the Quran and the Sunnah, which confirm Allah is not everywhere and above His Throne above the seven heavens, that have not been included in this article. One can look at the story of the Isra and Miraj of Prophet Muhammad(S) where Angel Jibraeel took Muhammad(S) up through the heavens until Muhammad(S) finally talked with Allah.
It is important for us to know Who we are worshipping, so we can InshaAllah continue to better ourselves and to be among the successful in the hereafter.
There is no doubt Allah is All-Hearing and All-Knowing and nothing escapes Allahs knowledge and we have to believe that.
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