Merits of Jumuah and Salat-ul-Jumuah
Muhammad (S) said, "We are the last (with regards to time), but the first (with regards to status). They (Jews and Christians) were given the book before us and we were given it after them. This day was prescribed for them but they differed about it, so Allah The Most High, guided us to it. It is Friday. The other people follow us after it, the Jews tomorrow (Saturday), and the Christians the day after tomorrow (Sunday)." (Bukhari and Muslim)
Muhammad (S) said, "Whoever makes wudhu and excels in performing wudhu, then goes to the masjid (for Jumuah) and listens and remains quiet, then forgiven for him will be whatever he did from that Friday to the previous Friday plus an additional three days." (Muslim)
The Importance and Obligation of Salat-ul-Jumuah
Allah says (what means): "O believers when the call is proclaimed for the prayer on Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah and leave off business." (al-Jumuah, 9)
This shows us the excuses we state as far as work and studying are not valid ones. We have to attend Salat-ul-Jumuah. One of the rights we have living in the USA is to attend Salat-ul-Jumuah. If we are prevented from doing so by our work or school, we can take legal action against them.
Muhammad (S) said, "Surely I considered appointing someone to lead the prayer, then I would go to those men who did not attend the Friday prayer and burn down their houses." (Muslim)
This shows the displeasure Muhammad (S) felt for men above the age of puberty who neglected attending Salat-ul-Jumuah. Muhammad (S) also stated, "The people must stop not performing the Friday prayer or Allah will put a seal over their hearts and they will then become from the heedless." (Muslim)
Who Is Obligated to Attend Salat-ul-Jumuah?
Muhammad (S) said, "The Friday prayer is a right and obligation upon every Muslim in the community except four: a slave, a woman, a child (below puberty), or a sick person." (Abu Dawood)
One who is traveling outside of their metropolitan city limits is also allowed to miss Salat-ul-Jumuah as Muhammad (S) said, "There is no Friday prayer upon the traveler." (Tabarani)
So we can see every sane, healthy, and non-travelling man over the age of puberty are obligated to attend Salat-ul-Jumuah.
Etiquettes of Salat-ul-Jumuah
Muhammad (S) said, "The taking of a bath on Friday is compulsory for every Muslim (male) who has attained the age of puberty and also the cleaning of his teeth with a miswaak and the use of perfume if it is available." (Bukhari)
Keeping Quiet/Not Separating People
Muhammad (S) also said, "Whoever takes a bath on Friday, purifies himself as much as he can, then uses his oil or purifies himself with the scent of his household, then proceeds and does not separate two people sitting together, then prays as much as written for him and then remains silent while the Imam is delivering the khutba, his sins between the present and the last Friday will be forgiven." (Bukhari)
Muhammad (S) said, "Any person who takes a bath on Friday like the bath of Janaba and then goes for the prayer (in the first hour i.e. early), it is as if he had sacrificed a camel (in Allah's cause); and whoever goes in the second hour it is as if he had sacrificed a cow; and whoever goes in the third hour, then it is as if he had sacrificed a horned ram; and if one goes in the fourth hour, then it is as if he had sacrificed a hen; and whoever goes in the fifth hour then it is as if he had offered an egg. When the Imam comes out (i.e. starts delivering the Khutba), the angels present themselves to listen to the Khutba." (Bukhari)
Sitting Close to the Imam In The Front
Muhammad (S) said, "People will continue to withdraw to rows behind the first one until Allah puts them in a back place in Hell." (Abu Dawood)
Performing Two Rakat When Entering The Masjid (Tahiyyat al-Masjid)
Muhammad (S) said, "When one of you comes to the masjid, he should pray two rakats before he sits." (Bukhari and Muslim) also one time when Prophet Muhammad (S) was giving the khutba a man, Sulaik Ghatafani, came in. Muhammad (S) told him, "O Sulaik, stand and observe two rakats and make them short. When any one of you comes on Friday while the imam is giving the khutba, he should observe two rakats and should make them short." (Muslim)
Mistakes to Avoid
Shaving ones beard thinking it is adding beauty. (Muhammad (S) commanded us to leave our beards, so shaving it any time is a mistake).
Making dua (supplication) and raising ones hands between the two khutbas.
Saying Ameen loudly and raising ones hands at the end of the second khubta when the imam is reciting duas. (We have been instructed to follow Islam as the Sahaba (companions) practiced). Saying Ameen out loud is prescribed after the imam recites Surah Al-Fatiha during Fajr, Maghrib, and Isha prayers. (Bukhari)
Reading any material or playing with objects during the khutba.
This is no way covers all aspects of the Jumu'ah Prayer. One should refer to Jamal Zarabozo's book about the Fiqh of the Friday Prayer which is published by IANA.
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